A Brief History of Cerebellar Neurostimulation [Review]

SOURCE: Cerebellum. 21(4):715-730, 2022 Aug.

AUTHORS: Ponce GV; Klaus J; Schutter DJLG

ABSTRACT: The first attempts at using electric stimulation to study human brain functions followed the experiments of Luigi Galvani and Giovanni Aldini on animal electricity during the eighteenth century. Since then, the cerebellum has been among the areas that have been studied by invasive and non-invasive forms of electrical and magnetic stimulation. During the nineteenth century, animal experiments were conducted to map the motor-related regions of cerebellar cortex by means of direct electric stimulation. As electric stimulation research on the cerebellum moved into
the twentieth century, systematic research of electric cerebellar stimulation led to a better understanding of its effects and mechanism of action. In addition, the clinical potential of cerebellar stimulation in the treatment of motor diseases started to be explored. With the introduction of transcranial electric and magnetic stimulation, cerebellar research moved to non-invasive techniques. During the twenty-first century, following on groundbreaking research that linked the cerebellum to non-motor functions, non-invasive techniques have facilitated research into different aspects of cerebellar functioning. The present review provides a brief historical account of cerebellar neurostimulation and discusses current challenges and future direction in this field of