SOURCE: Frontiers in Psychiatry. 13 (no pagination), 2022. Article Number: 976544.
DATE OF PUBLICATION: 13 Oct 2022.
AUTHORS: Zamar A.; Lulsegged A.; Kouimtsidis C.
ABSTRACT: Bipolar spectrum disorder includes Bipolar I, Bipolar II and subthreshold bipolar disorders (BD). The condition is highly prevalent, disabling and associated with high mortality. Failure of diagnosis is high. Subthreshold presentations present as 4 or more changes in polarity, are generally less responsive to standard treatment and as a result, drug combinations are often needed. High Dose Levothyroxine (HDT) has been reported to be safe and effective with this condition. Treatment response has been associated with mutations in thyroid activating enzymes and intra cerebral transporter protein carrier. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to be effective in bipolar depression and has been proved to have neuroplastic effect. Present authors had reported clinical evidence of safe and effective use of a combination treatment protocol. Potential mechanisms of action of the combined treatment protocol and the role of mitochondria function are discussed.