Brain Stimulation Techniques for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. [Review]

SOURCE: Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 46(2):307-329, 2023 Jun.

AUTHORS: Boscutti A; Juliana Mendonca De Figueiredo; Dana Razouq; Murphy N; Cho R; Selvaraj S

ABSTRACT: Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated intervention for depression; it is currently approved for treatment-resistant depression. This article summarizes the mechanism of action, evidence of clinical efficacy, and the clinical aspects of this intervention, including patient evaluation, stimulation parameters selection, and safety considerations. Transcranial direct current stimulation is another neuromodulation treatment for depression; although promising, the technique is not currently approved for clinical use in the United States. The final section outlines the open challenges and future directions of the field.