Clinical Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Chart Review

SOURCE: Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Conference: 11th International Congress on Psychopharmacology and 7th International Symposium on Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Antalya Turkey. 29(Supplement 1) (pp 85-86), 2019.


AUTHOR: Yuksel M.E.

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is one of the noninvasive brain stimulation techniques used for the treatments of neurologic or psychiatric disorders. During a TMS procedure a coil is placed on the targeted region of the scalp, in which an electric current flow and produces a magnetic field. The magnetic field stimulates nerve cells which results in improving of symptoms. There are different types of TMS: Single pulse, paired-pulse, Repetitive TMS and theta burst. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is commonly well-tolerated. The most common side effects are headaches and scalp discomfort. Low-frequency stimulations (<= 1 Hz) results in cortical inhibition and high frequency rTMS (>= 5 Hz) results in cortical activation. Clinical uses in child and adolescent psychiatry practice are depression, eating disorders, psychosis, bipolar disorder, tics.

METHOD(S): The charts of the patients treated with TMS in the child and adolescent department of NP Istanbul Brain Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The side effects were recorded. To assess the efficacy of TMS, the changed scores of scales were recorded. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used for depression. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used for obsessive compulsive disorder.

RESULT(S): Transcranial magnetic stimulation is generally safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents. Some patients with autism spectrum disorders could not tolerate the procedure mainly because of its loud noise. One patient aged 13 underwent deep TMS for her eating disorder. The TMS was found to be effective in depressive disorders and autism spectrum disorders.

CONCLUSION(S): There is a need for further studies of TMS as a therapeutic intervention.