Devices And Technology in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Systematic Review

SOURCE: Brain Sciences. 12(9) (no pagination), 2022. Article Number: 1218.

DATE OF PUBLICATION: September 2022.

AUTHORS: Gutierrez M.I.; Poblete-Naredo I.; Mercado-Gutierrez J.A.; Toledo-Peral C.L.; Quinzanos-Fresnedo J.; Yanez-Suarez O.; Gutierrez-Martinez J.

ABSTRACT: The technology for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has significantly changed over the years, with important improvements in the signal generators, the coils, the positioning systems, and the software for modeling, optimization, and therapy planning. In this systematic literature review (SLR), the evolution of each component of TMS technology is presented and analyzed to assess the limitations to overcome. This SLR was carried out following the PRISMA 2020 statement. Published articles of TMS were searched for in four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, IEEE). Conference papers and other reviews were excluded. Records were filtered using terms about TMS technology with a semi-automatic software; articles that did not present new technology developments were excluded manually. After this screening, 101 records were included, with 19 articles proposing new stimulator designs (18.8%), 46 presenting or adapting coils (45.5%), 18 proposing systems for coil placement (17.8%), and 43 implementing algorithms for coil optimization (42.6%). The articles were blindly classified by the authors to reduce the risk of bias. However, our results could have been influenced by our research interests, which would affect conclusions for applications in psychiatric and neurological diseases. Our analysis indicates that more emphasis should be placed on optimizing the current technology with a special focus on the experimental validation of models. With this review, we expect to establish the base for future TMS technological developments.