Functional Neuromarkers for Psychiatry and Neurology: Applications for Diagnosis and Treatment

Source: NeuroRegulation. Conference: 29th International Society for
Neuroregulation and Research, ISNR 2021. Miami, FL United States. 8(4) (pp
198-199), 2021.

Date of Publication: 2021.

Author: Kropotov Y.

Abstract: The paper describes a recently emerged Human Brain Index (HBI) methodology of extracting functional neuromarkers from spontaneous resting-state EEG, from multichannel event-related potentials (ERPs; by definition, ERPs are scalp recorded voltage fluctuations that are time-locked to an event, sensory or motor) and application of this methodology in clinical practice. The methodology includes methods of independent component analysis (ICA) for artifact correcting, methods of blind sources separation (ICA, a joint diagonalization of covariance matrixes, PARAFAC, etc.) for extracting latent (hidden) components from resting-state EEG and from group event-related potentials, methods for constructing normative (a thousand of healthy subjects) and patient (thousands of patients with psychiatric and neurological conditions) databases, methods for comparing the extracted individual parameters with the normative data, as well
methods for pre-post comparison. Functional association of the latent components in the cued go/no-go task with operations of cognitive control such as working memory, context updating, conflict detection and monitoring, and action inhibition are discussed. In addition, the functional meaning of the common ERP waves (N1, N170, P3a, P3b, N2 NOGO, P3 NOGO), their heterogeneity, and age dynamics is reviewed. The high level of specificity and sensitivity for defining dysfunctions in ADHD, schizophrenia, ASD, and OCD is described. The paper also presents the ways of application of the methodology for predicting clinical outcome in response to pharmacological medication (ADHD medication by Ritalin as an example), for constructing protocols of neurofeedback, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in clinical population. A review of the recent studies is presented. The author will share his 15 years of experience (including hardware and software requirements, educational courses, supervision, etc.) of applying the HBI methodology in clinical practice. An example of a report based on HBI methodology with analysis of spontaneous EEG, event-related potentials, and recommendations for neurotherapy will be given to attendees.