Source: Clinical EEG & Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG & Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS). 52(6):427-435, 2021 Nov.
Authors: Silva LM; Silva KMS; Lira-Bandeira WG; Costa-Ribeiro AC; Araujo-Neto SA
Background: The primary motor cortex of the hand (M1-Hand) is a target used in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment and evaluation of motor neurological diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation locates the M1-Hand with high precision, but at a high cost. Although less accurate, the C3/C4 points of the international 10-20 system (IS 10-20) are routinely used to locate the M1-Hand. The international 10-5 system (IS 10-5) was developed with additional points (C3h/C4h), which could make it more accurate, but has not yet been tested on the location of the M1-Hand.
Objective: To analyze and compare the accuracy of C1/C2, C3h/C4h and C3/C4 points in locating the M1-Hand correspondence on the scalp.
Methods: The authors comparatively analyzed the distances from points C1/C2, C3h/C4h, and C3/C4 to the correspondence of the M1-Hand on the scalp in 30 MRI head exams.
Results: In most cases, the M1-Hand was located between C1-C3h and C2-C4h in the left and right hemispheres of the brain, respectively. The C3h (0.98 +/- 0.49 cm) and C4h (0.98 +/- 0.51 cm) points presented the shortest distances from the M1-Hand, with a significant difference when compared with C3/C4. The accuracy between C1/C2 and C3h/C4h was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The C3h/C4h and C1/C2 points were more accurate when compared with the C3 and C4 points in locating the M1-Hand correspondence on the scalp.