Neuron Matters: Neuromodulation With Electromagnetic Stimulation Must Consider Neurons As Dynamic Identities [Review]

SOURCE: Journal of Neuroengineering & Rehabilitation. 19(1):116, 2022 Nov 03.

AUTHORS: Ye H; Hendee J; Ruan J; Zhirova A; Ye J; Dima M

ABSTRACT: Neuromodulation with electromagnetic stimulation is widely used for the control of abnormal neural activity, and has been proven to be a valuable alternative to pharmacological tools for the treatment of many neurological diseases. Tremendous efforts have been focused on the design of the stimulation apparatus (i.e., electrodes and magnetic coils) that delivers the electric current to the neural tissue, and the optimization of the stimulation parameters. Less attention has been given to the complicated, dynamic properties of the neurons, and their context-dependent impact on the stimulation effects. This review focuses on the neuronal factors that influence the outcomes of electromagnetic stimulation in neuromodulation. Evidence from multiple levels (tissue, cellular, and single ion channel) are reviewed. Properties of the neural elements and their dynamic changes play a significant role in the outcome of electromagnetic stimulation. This angle of understanding yields a comprehensive perspective of neural activity during electrical neuromodulation, and provides insights in the design and development of novel stimulation technology.