Review of Noninvasive or Minimally Invasive Deep Brain Stimulation

Source: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 15 (no pagination), 2022. Article
Number: 820017.
Date of Publication: 18 Jan 2022.

Liu X.; Qiu F.; Hou L.; Wang X.

Brain stimulation is a critical technique in neuroscience research and
clinical application. Traditional transcranial brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been widely investigated in neuroscience for decades. However, TMS and tDCS have poor spatial resolution and penetration depth, and DBS requires electrode implantation in deep brain structures. These disadvantages have limited the clinical applications of these techniques. Owing to developments in science and technology, substantial advances in noninvasive and precise deep stimulation have been achieved by
neuromodulation studies. Second-generation brain stimulation techniques that mainly rely on acoustic, electronic, optical, and magnetic signals, such as focused ultrasound, temporal interference, near-infrared optogenetic, and nanomaterial-enabled magnetic stimulation, offer great prospects for neuromodulation. This review summarized the mechanisms, development, applications, and strengths of these techniques and the  prospects and challenges in their development. We believe that these second-generation brain stimulation techniques pave the way for brain disorder therapy.