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Self-Regulatory Neuronal Mechanisms and Long-Term Challenges in Schizophrenia Treatment

SOURCE: Brain Sciences. 13(4) (no pagination), 2023. Article Number: 651.


AUTHORS: Markiewicz-Gospodarek A.; Markiewicz R.; Borowski B.; Dobrowolska B.; Loza B.

ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a chronic and relapsing disorder that is characterized not only by delusions and hallucinations but also mainly by the progressive development of cognitive and social deficits. These deficits are related to impaired synaptic plasticity and impaired neurotransmission in the nervous system. Currently, technological innovations and medical advances make it possible to use various self-regulatory methods to improve impaired synaptic plasticity. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of various rehabilitation methods, we reviewed methods that modify synaptic plasticity and improve the cognitive and executive processes of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar bibliographic databases were searched with the keywords mentioned below. A total of 555 records were identified. Modern methods of schizophrenia therapy with neuroplastic potential, including neurofeedback, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, virtual reality therapy, and cognitive remediation therapy, were reviewed and analyzed. Since randomized controlled studies of long-term schizophrenia treatment do not exceed 2-3 years, and the pharmacological treatment itself has an incompletely estimated benefit-risk ratio, treatment methods based on other paradigms, including neuronal self-regulatory and neural plasticity mechanisms, should be considered. Methods available for monitoring neuroplastic effects in vivo (e.g., fMRI, neuropeptides in serum), as well as unfavorable parameters (e.g., features of the metabolic syndrome), enable individualized monitoring of the effectiveness of long-term treatment of schizophrenia.

LINK TO FULL ARTICLE: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10136915/

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