Sleep Quality Improves During Treatment with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Cocaine Use Disorder: A Retrospective Observational Study
BMC Psychiatry. 20(1):153, 2020 04 06.
Gomez Perez LJ; Cardullo S; Cellini N; Sarlo M; Monteanni T; Bonci A; Terraneo A; Gallimberti L; Madeo G.
Sleep disturbance is a prominent and common complaint in people with cocaine use disorder (CUD), either during intake or withdrawal. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise as a treatment for CUD. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between self-perceived sleep quality and cocaine use pattern variables in outpatients with CUD undergoing an rTMS protocol targeted at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
This is a retrospective observational study including 87 patients diagnosed with CUD according to the DSM-5 criteria. Scores in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (CCQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Symptoms checklist 90-Revised (outcome used: Global Severity Index, GSI) were recorded at baseline, and after 5, 30, 60, and 90 days of rTMS treatment. Cocaine use was assessed by self-report and regular urine screens.
Sleep disturbances (PSQI scores > 5) were common in patients at baseline (mean +/- SD; PSQI score baseline: 9.24 +/- 3.89; PSQI > 5 in 88.5% of patients). PSQI scores significantly improved after rTMS treatment (PSQI score Day 90: 6.12 +/- 3.32). Significant and consistent improvements were also seen in craving and in negative-affect symptoms compared to baseline. Considering the lack of a control group, in order to help the conceptualization of the outcomes, we compared the results to a wait-list group (n = 10). No significant improvements were observed in the wait-list group in any of the outcome measures.
The present findings support the therapeutic role of rTMS interventions for reducing cocaine use and accompanying symptoms such as sleep disturbance and negative-affect symptoms.