Tailored Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression and Addictions

SOURCE: Progress in Brain Research. 270(1):105-121, 2022

AUTHORS: Levi D; Vignati S; Guida E; Oliva A; Cecconi P; Sironi A; Corso A; Broggi

ABSTRACT: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been widely applied for
evaluation of the cortical eloquence through creation of the temporary “”virtual lesion”” allowing assessment of the evaluated function within the targeted region, which may be also employed for management of mental symptoms or modification of the abnormal behavior. It is believed that this non-invasive neuromodulation modality has a double impact on neurons-primary modulation of electrical activity and stimulation of neuroplasticity; the latter can be facilitated by repeated administration of TMS during multiple sessions over sufficiently long periods of time to induce consolidation of treatment effects through their recall at
psychological, physiological, and cellular levels. These principles were employed in our data-driven, tailored strategy based on the modifications of TMS protocol and its adaptation to newly appearing changes of the clinical situation along with administration of prolonged and/or repeated courses of therapeutic stimulation, which showed high efficacy resulting in complete relief of depressive symptoms or substance use in 75% of treated patients at 1-year follow-up. Such results justify application of repetitive TMS for management of psychiatric disorders and warrant
additional evaluation of its efficacy in further clinical studies.