Targeting the Pathological Network: Feasibility of Network-Based Optimization of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil Placement for Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders

SOURCE: Frontiers in Neuroscience. 16 (no pagination), 2023. Article Number: 1079078.


AUTHORS: Cao Z.; Xiao X.; Zhao Y.; Jiang Y.; Xie C.; Paillere-Martinot M.-L.; Artiges E.; Li Z.; Daskalakis Z.J.; Yang Y.; Zhu C.

ABSTRACT: It has been recognized that the efficacy of TMS-based modulation may depend on the network profile of the stimulated regions throughout the brain. However, what profile of this stimulation network optimally benefits treatment outcomes is yet to be addressed. The answer to the question is crucial for informing network-based optimization of stimulation parameters, such as coil placement, in TMS treatments. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of taking a disease-specific network as the target of stimulation network for guiding individualized coil placement in TMS treatments. We present here a novel network-based model for TMS targeting of the pathological network. First, combining E-field modeling and resting-state functional connectivity, stimulation networks were modeled from locations and orientations of the TMS coil. Second, the spatial anti-correlation between the stimulation network and the pathological network of a given disease was hypothesized to predict the treatment outcome. The proposed model was validated to predict treatment efficacy from the position and orientation of TMS coils in two depression cohorts and one schizophrenia cohort with auditory verbal hallucinations. We further demonstrate the utility of the proposed model in guiding individualized TMS treatment for psychiatric disorders. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the feasibility of the novel network-based targeting strategy that uses the whole-brain, system-level abnormity of a specific psychiatric disease as a target. Results based on empirical data suggest that the strategy may potentially be utilized to identify individualized coil parameters for maximal therapeutic effects.