The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide for brain-brain and brain-machine interfaces.


Goodman G; Poznanski RR; Cacha L; Bercovich D. Institution Goodman,G. * Galil Genetic Analysis, Katzrin 12900 Israel. Poznanski,R R. + Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosci ences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Poznanski,R R. ++ Laboratory of Biological Modeling, The Roc kefeller University, 10065 New York, USA. Cacha,L. + Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Biosciences an d Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Bercovich,D. Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Life Scienc es, Tel-Hai Academic College Galilee, 12110 Israel.


The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide for brain-brain and brain- ma chine interfaces.


Journal of Integrative Neuroscience. 14(3):281-93, 2015 Sep .


Great advances have been made in signaling information on brain activity in individuals, or passing between an individual and a comp uter or robot. These include recording of natural activity using implants u nder the scalp or by external means or the reverse feeding of such data into the brain. In one recent example, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulatio n (TMS) allowed feeding of digitalized information into the central n ervous system (CNS). Thus, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordin gs of motor signals at the scalp, representing specific motor intention of hand moving in individual humans, were fed as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at a maximum intensity of 2.0[Formula: see text ]T through a circular magnetic coil placed flush on each of the heads of subjects present at a different location. The TMS was said to induce an electric current influencing axons of the motor cortex causi ng the intended hand movement: the first example of the transfer of motor intention and its expression, between the brains of two r emote humans. However, to date the mechanisms involved, not least that relating to the participation of magnetic induction, remain unclear. In gener al, in animal biology, magnetic fields are usually the poor relation of neuronal current: generally “unseen” and if apparent, disregarded or jus t given a nod. Niels Bohr searched for a biological parallel to c omplementary phenomena of physics. Pertinently, the two-brains hypothesis (TBH) proposed recently that advanced animals, especially man, have two brai ns i.e., the animal CNS evolved as two fundamentally different th ough interdependent, complementary organs: one electro-ionic (tang ible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and di fficult to access) – a stable, structured and functional 3D compendiu m of variously induced interacting electro-magnetic (EM) fields. Resear ch on the CNS in health and disease progresses including that on b rain-brain, brain-computer and brain-robot engineering. As they grow even closer, these disciplines involve their own unique complexities, in cluding direction by the laws of inductive physics. So the novel TB H hypothesis has wide fundamental implications, including those related t o TMS. These require rethinking and renewed research engaging the fully comp lementary equivalence of mutual magnetic and electric field induction in t he CNS and, within this context, a new mathematics of the brain to decipher higher cognitive operations not possible with current bra in-brain and brain-machine interfaces. Bohr may now rest.

Publication Type: Journal Article.