Therapeutic Potential of Brain Stimulation Techniques in the Treatment of Mental, Psychiatric, and Cognitive Disorders. [Review]

SOURCE: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics. 29(1):8-23, 2023 Jan.

AUTHORS: Camacho-Conde JA; Del Rosario Gonzalez-Bermudez M; Carretero-Rey M; Khan ZU

ABSTRACT: Treatment for brain diseases has been disappointing because available medications have failed to produce clinical response across all the patients. Many patients either do not respond or show partial and inconsistent effect, and even in patients who respond to the medications have high relapse rates. Brain stimulation has been seen as an alternative and effective remedy. As a result, brain stimulation has become one of the most valuable therapeutic tools for combating against brain diseases. In last decade, studies with the application of brain stimulation techniques not only have grown exponentially but also have expanded to wide range of brain disorders. Brain stimulation involves passing electric currents into the cortical and subcortical area brain cells with the use of noninvasive as well as invasive methods to amend brain functions. Over time, technological advancements have evolved into the development of precise devices; however, at present, most used noninvasive techniques are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), whereas the most common invasive technique is deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the current review, we will provide an overview of the potential of noninvasive (rTMS and tDCS) and invasive (DBS) brain stimulation techniques focusing on the treatment of mental, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders.