Toward Noninvasive Brain Stimulation 2.0 in Alzheimer’s Disease. [Review]

SOURCE: Ageing Research Reviews. 75:101555, 2022 03.

AUTHORS: Menardi A; Rossi S; Koch G; Hampel H; Vergallo A; Nitsche MA; Stern Y; Borroni B; Cappa SF; Cotelli M; Ruffini G; El-Fakhri G; Rossini PM; Dickerson B; Antal A; Babiloni C; Lefaucheur JP; Dubois B; Deco G; Ziemann U; Pascual-Leone A; Santarnecchi E

ABSTRACT: Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques (NiBS) have gathered substantial interest in the study of dementia, considered their possible role in help defining diagnostic biomarkers of altered neural activity for early disease detection and monitoring of its pathophysiological course, as well as for their therapeutic potential of boosting residual cognitive functions. Nevertheless, current approaches suffer from some limitations. In this study, we review and discuss experimental NiBS applications that might help improve the efficacy of future NiBS uses in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), including perturbation-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and disease tracking, solutions to enhance synchronization of oscillatory electroencephalographic activity across brain networks, enhancement of sleep-related memory consolidation, image-guided stimulation for connectome control, protocols targeting interneuron pathology and protein clearance, and finally hybrid-brain models for in-silico modeling of AD pathology and personalized target selection. The present work aims to stress the importance of multidisciplinary, translational, model-driven interventions for precision medicine approaches in AD.